Dry-land management

Water management





Update December 2015

Annette Evertzen






FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender and nutrition fact sheet. FAO, 2010.

Women are in a unique position to reduce malnutrition, but they frequently have limited access to nutrition information and the resources to improve food security. This fact sheet looks at how the social and economic inequalities between men and women often stand in the way of good nutrition.

The right to adequate food fact sheet. OHCHR / FAO, 2010.

This fact sheet explains what the right to adequate food is. It illustrates the implications for specific individuals and groups, such as women and children; and elaborates upon State parties’ obligations with respect to this basic human right.

Gender and Land Rights. Understanding complexities; adjusting policies.

A Policy Brief that illustrates some of the issues preventing women from accessing land and offers guidelines for designing better policies that address this situation effectively.



Gender and Rural Employment Policy Brief. 2010

1.  Gender-equitable rural work to reduce poverty and boost economic growth.

Equal access to decent employment is particularly important for rural women, as a means to ensure their families’ livelihoods and well-being. This Policy Brief presents key issues and policy recommendations to help tackle decent work deficits and gaps.

2. Investing in skills for socio-economic empowerment of rural women

Higher barriers in education and training limit women's participation in better remunerated jobs and leadership roles. This Policy Brief highlights the need to widen skills development opportunities for both women and men to enhance rural productivity

3. Rural women’s entrepreneurship is “good business”!

Rural women’s entrepreneurship can provide a significant contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction. To promote women-led rural businesses, programmes and services must therefore respond to their specific needs and requirements.

4. Agricultural value chain development: Threat or opportunity for women’s employment?


This Policy Brief provides recommendations on how to minimize the risks and enhance the opportunities that modern agricultural value chains can offer rural men and women.

5. Women in infrastructure works: Boosting gender equality and rural development!

Rural infrastructure programmes can create valuable work opportunities, as well as increase access to goods and services for rural people. This Policy Brief outlines ways to include the needs of both men and women when identifying, designing and implementing public works.

6. Making migration work for women and men in rural labour markets.

Migrants, especially women, are often vulnerable to forms of discrimination and social exclusion. A combination of legal, policy and practical measures that address their needs is therefore key to increasing their social status and bargaining power.

7. Breaking the rural poverty cycle: Getting girls and boys out of work and into school.


Millions of girls and boys in rural areas worldwide are child labourers. To end the cycle of poverty for the children involved, policies must address the root causes of child labour and promote decent work for adults in rural areas.







Flintan F.

Engendering Eden. Volume I. Women, gender and integrated conservation and development projects. Lessons learnt and ways forward. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2003.
This paper discusses key issues identified through research carried out on ICDPs (Integrated Conservation and Development Projects) in Africa and Asia. It draws out the experiences and lessons learnt from the two year research project in ICDPs.

Engendering Eden. Volume II. Women, gender and integrated development projects in Africa. Lessons learnt and experiences shared. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2003.

This paper sets out to understand what gender-based differences and inequities exist within communities, and how these affect participation and the distribution of benefits in relation to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs). Gender analysis of the impact of the project, and recommendations to increase women's participation.

Engendering Eden. Volume III. Women, gender and integrated development projects in South and South-East Asia. Lessons learnt and experiences shared. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2003.

This report discusses how differences within communities affect participation and the distribution of benefits in relation to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. The report draws on experiences from south and south-east Asia, making a number of recommendations.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

CEDAW. A tool for gender-sensitive agriculture and rural development policy and programme formulation. Rome: FAO, 2014.

Agricultural policies need to address gender inequalities to ensure effective development interventions that can achieve positive and sustainable results in the lives of rural women, men, girls and boys. One powerful instrument for promoting the realization of the rights and potential of rural women and girls is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). This publication provides guidance on the support and use of CEDAW in country level policy development and programming, to achieve equality between men and women in agriculture and rural development

Also available in French and Spanish.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Gender and land compendium of country studies. FAO, 2006.

Hunger and poverty are, in general, consequences of inadequate and restricted access to land and other resources, such as capital, inputs and technology; being women among those with less access to land, while accounting for a large share in small-scale food production.

This compendium has been put together to provide an improved understanding of the complex issues concerning gender and land. It draws on research commissioned by FAO, and has been compiled by the Gender and Development Service in collaboration with the Land Tenure Service.

            Also available in French and Spanish.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Rural households and resources. A guide for extension workers. Rome: FAO, 2004.

This guide was developed under the Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA) of the and aims to highlight major issues affecting rural households, and to provide users with resources and tools for collecting, analysing and sharing information about the constraints, opportunities and priorities faced by communities, households and individual household members.

The guide promotes the use of gender-sensitive and participatory approaches as a means of achieving sustainable development that puts people at the centre of the issues, analysis and solutions.

The SEAGA Guide on rural households and resources (hereafter referred to as is actually three interlinked documents made up of the following:

§          Part I: A resource guide providing background information on household resource management and an overview of issues to keep in mind when planning extension interventions.

§          Annexes containing a glossary, references and checklists.

§          Part II: A toolbox for use in communication with rural people/extension clients.

Also available as Pocket guide.

Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.


FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization -

Socioeconomic and gender analysis (SEAGA). Rome: FAO, 2001.

A series of 3 extensive handbooks: Field handbook, Intermediate level handbook, and macro level handbook.

These handbooks are meant to incorporate socio-economic and gender considerations into development projects, programmes and policies in order to ensure that all development efforts address the needs and priorities of men and women.

They address three levels of development workers:

§          Field agents who work directly with local communities. The SEAGA field-level handbook facilitates the participatory identification of the needs and priorities of local men and women from different socio-economic groups.

§          Development planners in public and private sector institutions. The SEAGA intermediate-level handbook assists in the identification and analysis of the linkages between the macro and field levels. It also enables the assessment of the institutions organizational mechanisms from a gender perspective.

Policy- and decision-makers who work at the international and/or national levels. The SEAGA macro-level handbook facilitates gender mainstreaming in programmes and policies.

Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.


Resurreccion,B., P.; Elmhirst,R.

Gender and natural resource management. Livelihoods, mobility and interventions. International Development Research Centre. 2008.

This book examines the gender dimensions of natural resource exploitation and management, with a focus on Asia. It explores the uneasy negotiations between theory, policy, and practice that are often evident within the realm of gender, environment, and natural resource management. It offers a critical feminist perspective on gender relations and natural resource management in the context of contemporary policy concerns: decentralized governance, the elimination of poverty, and the mainstreaming of gender.

The book is centred around three themes:

·        the changing global context with which approaches to gender and environment must engage, particularly changes associated with neo-liberalism

·        the ways 'gender' has been incorporated in environment and development practices, especially within interventions designed to accomplish sustainable development goals

·        the realm of gender, knowledge and authority, and how gendered subjectivities problematise simplistic mappings of gendered agency and environmental actions.

The book combines conceptual argument with empirical material from a variety of political, economic and ecological contexts across Asia, including Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. In different ways, the authors explore how gender subjectivities, ideologies and identities are produced, employed and contested within natural resource governance, and how gender discourses shape exclusions and possibilities within environment/development processes.


UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme

Women and the environment. UNEP / WEDO, 2004.

            This publication makes the often hidden links between women and the environment visible, with an explicit focus on the gender-related aspects of land, water and biodiversity conservation and management. The book, drawing on observations and research by numerous individuals and organizations including UNEP and the UN Food and Agricultural Organization, contains numerous illuminating anecdotes and case studies that reflect the crucial and all too often ignored role of women in the environment.

Describing the evolution of development analysis from a focus on women as a separate group to its current more holistic emphasis on gender, the chapter considers an analytical framework for future discussions of women, the environment and development.


Vernooy, R.

Social and gender analysis in natural resource management: learning studies and lessons from Asia. International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 2006.

This book documents and reflects on the steps that researchers are taking to implement social and gender analysis, including questions of class, caste, and ethnicity, into their everyday work. It combines both learning experiences and scientific results, representing academic and non-academic sectors, a variety of research organizations, and a number of natural resource management questions, including biodiversity conservation, crop and livestock improvement, and sustainable grassland development.

The learning studies from China, India, Mongolia, Nepal, and Vietnam, illustrate challenges, opportunities, successes, and disappointments, and highlight the different methods used and adapted in the diverse contexts of South and Southeast Asia. The book concludes with a comparative analysis of the learning studies, which highlights common issues and challenges.







Howard, Patricia L.

The major importance of ‘minor’ resources. Women and plant biodiversity. Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Programme (SARL) IIED, 2003.

This paper describes how women predominate in plant biodiversity management in their roles as housewives, plant gatherers, home gardeners, herbalists, seed custodians and informal plant breeders. It argues, however, that because most plant use, management and conservation occurs within the domestic realm, and because the principal values of plant genetic resources are localised and non-monetary, women are largely invisible to outsiders and are easily undervalued despite this predomination. Traditional knowledge and indigenous rights to plants are everywhere sex-differentiated, and gender inequalities are also implicated in processes leading to biological erosion.

The paper argues that achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly those related to sustainable use and to benefit sharing, will require much greater attention to women's knowledge, management and rights, and to the domestic sphere.


Rodríguez Villalobos, Guiselle;  Blanco Lobo, Montserrat; Azofeifa Cascante, Francisco.

Diversity makes the difference. Actions to guarantee gender equity in the application of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004.

This document is basically focused on the recognition of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the National Biodiversity Strategies (NBS), as participation and awareness-raising mechanisms of our societies to build a new form of relation between human beings and their environment. These worldwide-recognized options, should also turn into opportunities to empower women and promote an equitable and fair distribution of the benefits derived from the use of the resources of biodiversity.

The book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter presents a reflection about the biological and cultural dimensions of diversity, how the CBD recovers them, and the need to clearly set forth the fact that equity also entails a gender dimension. The second chapter illustrates from the gender equity perspective, the uses, knowledge, protection actions and distribution mechanisms related to biodiversity resources. This section is conformed by examples that may be used as material for group reflection. Finally, the NBS are addressed as opportunities to strengthen the equitable participation of women and men.





Dry-land management



Asian Development Bank

Gender Equality and Food Security – Women’s empowerment as a tool against hunger. Asian Development Bank, 2013,


This report explores how gender equality can contribute to food security. The focus is on Asia and the Pacific, though developments in other regions are also referenced. The report describes the relationship between gender-based discrimination and the different channels through which households and individuals access food. It concludes that while equality of treatment between women and men and food security are mutually supportive, gender equality remains an elusive goal in many regions, and a transformation of traditional gender roles is urgently needed.


Bravo-Baumann, Heidi

Livestock and Gender: a winning pair. Capitalisation of experiences on the contribution of livestock projects to gender issues. Bern: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, 2000.

Since women are the most important labor force in all livestock keeping communities, and since livestock production and management are joint activities in rural households, this report argues that the livestock sector offers an excellent entry point. Based on the work of SDC and other organizations, and a review of literature on this subject, nine main areas of livestock production are explored. Included are: ownership of and access to resources (land, livestock, capital, knowledge); division of labor; household nutrition; the household economy; training in livestock activities; and the role of farmers' organizations. An overview of experiences of integrating gender aspects in livestock projects is provided, and key points, risks and best practices are identified for each area. The implications of gender aspects for project design and monitoring are emphasized throughout, with indications in each section of required information and possible indicators needed to facilitate integration of these aspects.


Brown, L.; Lambrou, Y; Birner, R.

Gender in agriculture sourcebook. International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2008

This sourcebook combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture-for-development strategies that capitalise effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction.

The Sourcebook adopts the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) to provide a conceptual framework for the complexities and synergies of gender equality, livelihoods, food security, and poverty reduction. It provides practical advice, guidelines, principles, descriptions and illustrations of approaches that have worked so far to achieve the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agricultural operations of development agencies. It is intended as a guide for practitioners and technical staff in addressing gender issues and integrating gender-responsive actions in the design and implementation of agricultural projects and programmes.

Each chapter includes an overview, thematic notes and innovative activity profiles.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Agri-Gender Database. A statistical toolkit for the production of sex-disaggregated agricultural data. Rome: FAO, 2010.

This brochure introduces the Agri-Gender Database, a statistical toolkit for the production of sex-disaggregated agricultural data. It provides examples of questionnaire components and table formats for the collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated agricultural data.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender-disaggregated data for agriculture and rural development. Rome: FAO, 2003.

The guide is intended for use by those seeking to facilitate change in approaches to policy and planning design within agricultural ministries, national statistics offices, and other relevant institutions. Specifically, it is intended for those facilitating change with agricultural data and statistics producers in those institutions.

This guide contains several materials useful to facilitators planning and conducting a workshop on gender-disaggregated data for agriculture and rural development - whether long or short, focusing on data tabulation and analysis or questionnaire design, or intended for more technical staff or decision-makers.

This package provides facilitators and participants with exercises that lead toward an understanding of what is gender-disaggregated data and why it is important. It provides some tools for carving out a path towards a retabulation, analysis, interpretation and understanding of data (and hopefully creating new data).


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: Differentiated pathways out of poverty. Status, trends and gaps. Rome, FAO, 2010.

This publication combines empirical data and good practices based on national and international experiences on the gender dimension of rural and agricultural employment. The publication presents an update analysis of current development issues that are crucial for addressing rural poverty and achieving the Millenium Development Goals.

The publication is structured into three main parts:

Part 1 is an overview presenting issues related to gender equality and rural employment for poverty reduction, that includes the construction of a gender analytical framework across regions and contexts. This section also identifies appropriate policy responses and gender based constraints to the achievement of decent work for all. Part 2 outlines and analyses key issues. Part 3 offers a selection of  papers that cover thematic areas of particular relevance to discussions about gender and rural employment.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Understanding and integrating gender issues into livestock projects and programmes: A checklist for practitioners. Rome: FAO, 2010.

This booklet guides experts in designing, implementing and monitoring livestock projects and programmes in a gender sensitive way. It identifies the main challenges faced by smallholder farmers, especially women, in small livestock management (particularly poultry and small ruminants) and in dairy farming.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

               Women in forestry. Challenges and opportunities. Rome: FAO, 2014.


Men and women play different roles in forestry and agroforestry systems in developing countries. Compared with men, women are frequently disadvantaged in their access to and control over forest resources, and in the economic opportunities available to them. Policies and practices empowering women in the forest sector can yield significant benefits to food security and nutrition, to the sustainable management of forests, and to the livelihoods of forest-dependent people and their societies.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

SEAGA livestock guide. Planning with a gender and HIV/AIDS lens. Rome : FAO, 2005.

The purpose of this guide is to support those working on livestock-related programmes and projects, particularly in the design of these, so that they can more effectively respond to the different needs, priorities, constraints, and livelihood strategies present in rural communities or households. This guide focuses on the collection and use of qualitative socio-economic and gender-disaggregated data, particularly for use in project identification and design.

This guide provides a brief overview of some of the key socio-economic and gender issues related to livestock production. In particular, it considers the impact of HIV/AIDS on livestock production and related activities, as it is an overarching development concern affecting all sectors, and increasingly all regions of the world.

 Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.


The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD),

Gender and non-timber forest products. Promoting food security and economic empowerment. IFAD, 2008.

This publication takes stock of past experience and demonstrates that there are many opportunities to invest in non-timber forest products in support of rural livelihoods and to promote better methods of enabling poor rural people, and especially women, to benefit from the sector. It  highlights approaches used by IFAD and other agencies and emphasizes the multiple dimension of the challenges – in terms of division of labour, differences in access to credit and market information, and environmental issues.  It also illustrates the role of women as agents of change in this sector in knowledge of natural resources, biodiversity and conservation.


Laudazi, Marina.

Gender and sustainable development in dry-lands. An analysis of field experiences. Rome : FAO, 2003.

Dry-lands pose different challenges for rural men and women because of their different roles, relations and responsibilities, opportunities and constraints, and uneven access and control of resources. By incorporating a gender perspective in policy, projects and programmes, innovative ways of combating dry-land degradation and food insecurity can be promoted, notably through a better understanding of men's and women's roles, and their respective concerns and needs. This document looks at the relationship between gender and dry-land management, based on an analysis of relevant field experiences in Africa and Asia , identified on the Internet, highlighting the role of women and men in dry-land areas for food security, land conservation/desertification and the conservation of biodiversity. It makes available key findings related to these issues in a number of projects and programmes in Africa and Asia . It also outlines different aspects to be considered for achieving a gender-sensitive and sustainable dry-land management.

Also available in French and Spanish.


Quisumbing, A.R.; McClafferty, B. 

Using gender research in development. Incorporating gender issues improves development project design and effectiveness.

International Food Policy Research Institute, 2006.

This practitioners' guide aims to bridge the gap between research and practice. The guide offers a non-technical presentation of research findings from IFPRI’s multi-country research programme on gender and intra-household issues, along with implications and key questions for integrating gender research findings into project cycle and policy decision-making processes.

It presents empirical evidence based on field research on the ways in which gender and intra-household issues, when taken into account, can improve the design, implementation, and effectiveness of development projects and policies, and then shows readers how to incorporate the findings effectively into development programmes.


United States Agency for International Development

Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains. A handbook. USAID, 2009.

This handbook is based on research studies and training programs conducted under the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) Project.

The GATE project developed a suite of resources to provide development practitioners with an understanding of and the tools for addressing gender issues in value chain analysis and development programs.

The Handbook covers conceptual and practical issues for addressing gender in agricultural value chains and is divided into two parts.

§          Part I. Integrating Gender Issues into Value Chain Development. This first part introduces gender issues and their relationship to agricultural value chain development.

§          Part II. A Process for Integrating Gender Issues into Agricultural Value Chains. Part II offers practitioners a five-step process for identifying and evaluating genderbased constraints within agricultural value chains with tools and worksheets for implementing the process.


World Bank / FAO / IFAD

Gender in agriculture. Sourcebook. Washington: World bank, 2009.

This sourcebook aims to deliver practical advice, guidelines, principles, and descriptions and illustrations of approaches that have worked so far to achieve the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agricultural operations of development agencies. It captures and expands the main messages of the World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development and is considered an important tool to facilitate the operationalisation and implementation of the report’s key principles on gender equality and women’s empowerment.




 Water management



FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Irrigation. Sector guide. Irrigation. Rome: FAO, 2001.

This document is a guide to the integration of socio-economic and gender issues in the sub-sector irrigation. The Guide has been developed in the context of the FAO Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) Programme. SEAGA is an approach to development based on an analysis of socio-economic patterns and participatory identification of women and men’s priorities. The objective of this approach is to close the gaps between what people need and what development delivers. The purpose of the Guide is to support gender-responsive participatory planning of irrigation schemes, and to integrate socio-economic and gender issues in the planning process. The ultimate aim is to improve irrigation scheme performance while strengthening the position of rural women and disadvantaged groups.

Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Passport to mainstreaming gender in water programmes. Rome: FAO, 2012

The International Decade for Action, “Water for Life” (2005-2015) and the UN-Millennium Development Goals both call for women’s and men’s participation and involvement in waterrelated development efforts. This booklet has been developed to help field staff mainstream gender issues in the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of water management projects for agricultural production.


Grossman, Anna; Johnson, Nadia; Sidhu, Gretchen (eds).

Diverting the flow. A resource guide to gender, rights and water privatization. New York; Women's Environment & Development Organization (WEDO), 2003.

This publication highlights the critical issues related to water privatization and women. Among the themes included are: water as a human right; gender roles and inequities; global policy trends; and governance issues. Case studies from Egypt, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, United States of America, and Uruguay.


Koppen, B. van.

A gender performance indicator for irrigation. Concepts, tools and applications. Research Report 59. Colombo: International Water Management Institute (IWMI), 2002.

Although gender issues are today a priority on the agendas of irrigation policy makers, interventionists, farm leaders and researchers, there is still a considerable gap between positive intentions and concrete action. An important but hitherto ignored reason for this is the lack of adequate generic concepts and tools that are policy-relevant and can accommodate the vast variation in irrigation contexts worldwide. The Gender Performance Indicator for Irrigation (GPII) aims to fill this gap. In any particular scheme, this tool diagnoses the gendered organization of farming and gender-based inclusion or exclusion in irrigation institutions. It informs irrigation agencies what they themselves can do for effective change-if necessary. The tool also identifies gender issues beyond a strict mandate of irrigation water provision. The Indicator was applied and tested in nine case studies in Africa and Asia. The research report presents the underlying concepts, methodological guidelines and selected applications of the GPII.


Lidonde, R.A.; Jong, D. de; Barot, N.

Advocacy manual for gender and water ambassadors. Delft: Gender and Water Alliance, 2003.


This Advocacy Manual has been developed to assist members of the Gender and Water Alliance who are involved in advocating for greater attention to gender issues within the water sector. The Manual is principally aimed at GWA members designated as Gender Ambassadors, whose role is to influence debates in international and national water conferences and similar events, as well as in relation to national water policy development, implementation and monitoring. The Manual provides: information on various aspects of water management from a gender perspective; practical information on advocacy, including the skills and techniques used in lobbying, preparing and presenting speeches, and promoting attention to gender issues at conferences or similar forums; examples of training exercises which can be used to develop and practice advocacy related skills; case study examples of the practical benefits of mainstreaming gender in community level water initiatives, which can be used for advocacy and training purposes.

Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.


SDC / DSC - Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Gender and water: mainstreaming gender equality in water, hygiene and sanitation interventions. SDC / DCS, 2005.

This document discusses how programme officers and water organisations can mainstream gender equality into SDC water, hygiene and sanitation interventions. It illustrates how to prioritise gender in terms of gender strategies and gender sensitive water policies and ensure that people are engaged and remain committed.

The authors consider current issues in gender and water and outline the areas in which gender perspectives need to be incorporated into the design of development interventions in the water sector. Divided into analysis, planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation, each stage includes key questions to prompt discussion and reflection, together with additional information and suggestions for improving practice.









            Introduction to gender in agriculture. On-line course.

The AgriProFocus network developed this online course for everyone who is interested in learning more about gender sensitive value chain development. It will introduce the most important concepts clearly, and give participants suggestions on how to address the topic within designing projects or within their own organisation. It gives ideas for taking gender transformative actions


Aguilar, L.

Training manual on gender and climate change. IUCN, 2009.

This training manual intended to improve skills around gender and climate change and equip and develop trainers in different regions and countries. It guides the reader through ten steps to follow when planning training, including defining target groups, setting objectives and evaluation. It contains seven training modules: gender and mainstreaming; international law instruments; gender and climate change overview; gender mainstreaming in adaptation; gender sensitive strategies in mitigation; gender sensitive strategies in technology development and transfer; and gender mainstreaming in climate change financing mechanisms. Each module includes a description and analysis of the topic, the module learning objectives and a range of practical materials and activities to use, along with facilitator notes and handouts. At the end of each module there is a list of further reading, and the manual’s appendix contains an annotated bibliography.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Building on gender, agrobiodiversity and local knowledge. A training manual. Rome: FAO, 2006.

The present Training Manual is based on experiences collected in numerous training workshops carried out under the FAO-LinKS project in Eastern and Southern Africa. This Training Manual constitutes a conceptual guide for trainers that can be used to lead them through the issues of gender and local knowledge which are important elements for agrobiodiversity management and food security. 

One result of participating in the training will be a growing awareness of the importance of gender and local knowledge for sustainable agrobiodiversity management. The issues of gender, local knowledge and agrobiodiversity and their linkages are clearly explained. The sustainable livelihoods approach is used as an overall framework to understand better these linkages. In addition, the Manual gives an overview of the policies, processes and institutions at the global level that may affect farmers and agrobiodiversity in general.

Also available in French and Spanish.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

            Gender equality in land governance. E-learning course. Rome: FAO, 2015.


This course supports implementation of Voluntary Guidelines As one of the ten essential principles of the VGGT, the requirement for gender equality calls on states to ensure that women and girls have equal tenure rights and access to land, fisheries and forests independent of their civil and marital status. As such, gender equality lies at the core of all processes and aspects of tenure governance, including policy formulation, institutional set up for administration, service provisioning, administration programmes, and access to justice and information. The course provides a clear understanding of why it is important to take into account gender and social issues when dealing with land tenure, and what actions must be adopted so that women and men from different social groups can participate in and equally benefit from land tenure governance processes.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Gender in Food and Nutrition Security. E-learning course. Rome: FAO, 2014.


This course provides guidance on how to design and implement agriculture policies and programmes that are gender-responsive, sustainable, contributing to gender equality, and therefore able to improve food and nutrition security.

Learners can select the lessons of their interest, for a total of about 14 hours of self-paced learning.


FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Training guide. Gender and climate change research in agriculture and food security for rural development. Rome: FAO/CCAFS, 2013.


This guide provides users with resources and tools for collecting, analysing and sharing gender-sensitive information about agricultural communities, households and individual household members who are facing climatic changes.


Gender and Water Alliance

Tutorial for water managers. Why gender matters. Delft, GWA, 2014.

Together with CapNet GWA has developed a self learning tool for water professionals and others interested in or responsible for managing water resources. This was published first in 2006, and has now been revised and updated. The tutorial wants to show how addressing gender will improve efficiency of water use and environmental sustainability. Therefore this tutorial first deals with the general concepts of gender and gender mainstreaming and then specifies to look at the following water sectors: drinking water, sanitation, agriculture and environment (including climate change). But apart from the "why" the tutorial also deals with the "how" of gender mainstreaming. To this end a quick-guide has been included at the beginning of the Tutorial, and in every chapter references and links to manuals, tools, resource centres and case studies are included.


SNV Rwanda / Protos

Mainstreaming Gender into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) Programs. A training manual for water professionals. Rwanda : SNV / Protos, 2006.

This training manual for water professionals on Mainstreaming Gender into Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programs is an integrated approach to gender and WASH issues. It consists of session plans and training materials. It contains 5hree modules:

Module 1 describes the situation with WASH in Rwanda , and global concepts and trends in the management of WASH programs are described.

In Module 2 the theoretical concepts of gender are introduced. These include social and gender analysis, gender roles and relationships and gender needs. The different development approaches to gender are explored and clarified.

Module 3 deals with project implementation. This module begins with describing gender mainstreaming and providing gender analysis frameworks and gender planning tools. Gender sensitive indicators and a log frame for WASH programs are introduced. Consideration is given to the

issues of equal opportunity policy and sexual harassment. Finally, gender mainstreaming both within an organisation and in projects are discussed.


 World Bank

Gender in agriculture. A World Bank learning module.

This module has particular reference to the agriculture sector. It offers an overview; the issue of gender in development work, particularly agriculture; the approaches; the tools for implementing gender education and analysis across a variety of sectors and geographic regions including slide presentations, exercises for both trainers and audiences, sample terms of reference for contractors, and instruments to aid with gender analysis; case studies; and references







Agri-ProFocus Learning Group: Gender in value chains Toolkit


This toolkit intends to motivate and help practitioners in integrating a gender perspective in agricultural value chain development, by providing practical tools for all stages of the value chain intervention. It is the second and adjusted version of an earlier Gender in Value Chain Toolkit published by AgriProFocus in September 2012. This version is adjusted based on experiences in using the first toolkit in AgriProFocus gender in value chain coaching tracks in Eastern Africa. The chapter on intervention strategies is complemented and contains many interesting and practical tools and approaches ready for use by you as a practitioner.



Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)


            Contains: news;  why gender;  FAO programme; insight; projects; and, resources

            Gender and land rights database


Land is a crucial resource for poverty reduction, food security and rural development. However, men and women do not always enjoy the same rights to land. This website describes the different factors that relate to gender inequalities embedded in land rights by exploring the country profiles, gender and land-related statistics and the recently developed legislation assessment tool (LAT).

Dimitra Project

Rural Women and Development

Dimitra is a participatory information and communication project which contributes to improving the visibility of rural populations, women in particular. The goal of Dimitra is to highlight the role of women and men as producers, so that their respective interests are better taken into consideration and they can fully participate in the rural development of their communities and countries. The project builds the capacities of rural populations, women in particular, through the dissemination of information and the exchange of experiences.



FAO / ILO / World Bank / UNDP



The Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) is an approach elaborated by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in partnership with the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to develop the capacity of development specialists and humanitarian officers to incorporate socio-economic and gender analysis into development initiatives and rehabilitation interventions.



Gender and Water Alliance


The gender and Water Alliance was established during the World Water Forum in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2002. 120 women's organisations and gender experts work together, translating the gender mainstreaming plans into actions. The Gender and Water Alliance has its secretariat at the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in the Netherlands.

Because of the pooled experience and skills contained in this network, the GWA offers a mix of information and knowledge sharing activities such as electronic conferencing, a web site, advocacy leaflets and video, annual reports, capacity building and pilot programmes.

Also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.



Global Gender and Climate Alliance


GGCA brings a human face to climate change decision–making and initiatives to integrate a gender perspective into policy and decision making, ensure that financing mechanisms on mitigation and adaptation address the needs of poor women and men equitably, build capacity at all levels to design and implement gender-responsive climate change policies, strategies and programmes, and share practical tools, information, and methodologies to facilitate the integration of gender into policy and programming.



The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

IFAD contribution to MDG 3 – Gender equality and women’s empowerment

Gender equality is an essential component for sustainable economic development and empowering rural women is vital to enabling poor people to improve their livelihoods and overcome poverty. Over 70 per cent of the world’s poor people live in rural areas and most of rural women and men rely on agriculture. However, rural women have limited access to land, credit, information and technologies, and they face difficulties in terms of mobility and political participation. IFAD is addressing gender inequalities and discrimination by focusing on areas which can empower women economically and socially, including access to land, water, education, training, markets and financial services.