February 2011

Latest update: December 2015


Annette Evertzen








Training manuals


Training manuals


Training manuals











This bibliography is based on the following collections:


§  The Internet, being the easiest way to get information in many countries

All the relevant literature on gender and governance and gender and legislation found on the Internet is given.


§  Inter Parliamentary Union

All their important literature on gender and governance in general, and gender and governance in African countries.

It is possible to search the collection on-line, with abstracts, see page 2.



To find more literature about women in politics the following sources can be helpful:

A bibliography on Internet, with abstracts:


Inter-Parliamentary Union                     

Women in politics; world bibliography.

The World Bibliography is accessible for research on the Internet.  It will be constantly up-dated to take account of new books and articles produced throughout the world on the subject of women in politics. Contains abstracts.








Ndulo, Muna

Constitutional provisions and enhancing participation of women in elections. UN-OSAGI, 2004.

The Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women (OSAGI), organized an Expert Group Meeting on "Enhancing women’s participation in electoral processes in post-conflict countries", in New York, January 2004.

This paper discusses the participation of women in post conflict societies from a perspective of the legislative measures that can be taken to enhance the participation of women. It also considers non legislative measures such as the role of the media. The paper first provides a background on constitutional provisions relevant to elections, next examines the participation of women in elections and the problems they face in their efforts to participate in elections. It then considers legislative approaches that have been taken in several countries to increase women participation. It ends with a conclusion that focuses on the chances of achieving the objective of improving women participation in elections.


Woroniuk, B.; Schalkwijk, J.

Electoral support and equality between women and men. Stockholm: SIDA, 1998.








Beijing Platform for action

         Women in power and decision-making.

Strategies for governments, political parties and the civil society, to increase women in decision-making. Official document from the World Conference in Beijing.


Hunt Alternatives Fund / The Institute for Inclusive Security

Strategies for policymakers. Bringing women Into government. Hunt Alternatives Fund, 2009.

Women bring important skills, attributes, and perspectives to the governance process. Few times offer policymakers as good an opportunity to increase the number of women participating in government as those windows immediately after conflicts. Those women who have successfully entered government have tended to build governance systems that are more stable and transparent, and more often accepted as legitimate by society. They have demonstrated the ability to bridge political divides, highlight women’s concerns, facilitate a consultative and participatory approach to policymaking, and press for government accountability. Despite their documented contributions, they are largely excluded.

In October 2000, the UN Security Council mandated women’s full participation in peace building in Resolution 1325. Few policymakers, however, know how to fulfill this obligation. This guide intends to provide the international community with concrete strategies to successfully bring women into government.

This publication presents case studies of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Rwanda.


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Guidelines for Women’s Caucuses. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2013.

The purpose of these Guidelines for women’s caucuses is to equip women with the tools needed to create a caucus and outline a standardized, step-by-step process for doing so. These Guidelines can also help to improve the effectiveness of existing caucuses, focusing the attention of parliamentarians on the key issues and all of the various aspects entailed in creating and

running a caucus and achieving its objectives. They are illustrated by examples observed in different parts of the world.

Also available in French:


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Handbook for parliamentarians. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and its Optional Protocol. New York / Geneva: United Nations / Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2003.

This handbook, jointly produced with the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, offers a comprehensive and educational presentation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which is the most comprehensive international instrument on women's rights, and its Optional Protocol. The handbook presents the background to and content of the Convention and the Optional Protocol and describes the role of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, which secures implementation at the national level. It provides examples of best practices and gives an overview of what parliamentarians can do to ensure effective implementation of the Convention and encourage use of the Protocol. It also proposes model instruments and reference material as aids designed to facilitate the work of legislators.


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)                                
Equality in politics. A survey of women and men in parliaments. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2008.

This publication is the result of survey research conducted by the IPU between 2006 and 2008. It collates insights from both men and women parliamentarians into the factors that shape decision making. It provides concrete examples of how parliamentarians are working to attain gender equality in politics at the national level, and how parliaments can become more gender-sensitized. Survey respondents also identify several structural changes that could help to promote women's access to and full participation in parliament.

Also available in French:

And Spanish:


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Women in parliament: 20 years in review. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2015.

This publication looks at how women's representation in parliament has fared in the 20 years since the adoption of the Beijing Platform for Action on women's empowerment as well as in the year between 2014 and 2015. Although the news that the percentage of women MPs has nearly doubled since 1995 seems encouraging, the lack of significant progress in 2014 questions whether quotas have reached the peak of their impact.

Also available in French:

and Spanish:      


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Women in politics: 60 years in retrospect. Information kit. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2006

Published on the occasion of the 50th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women which reviewed progress made in the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action, this information kit is composed of six data sheets on women's participation in politics over the past 60 years:

§  Historical table on the institutional and legal evolution of States and the presence of women in national parliaments;

§  Progress and Setbacks of Women in National Parliaments between 01.07.1995 and 01.02.2006;

§  Women in the two parliamentary regional assemblies elected by direct suffrage: The Central American Parliament and the European Parliament;

§  A Chronology of Women Heads of State or Government: 1945 - 02.2006;

§  An Overview of Women in Parliament: 1945-2006;

§  The Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making: The parliamentary dimension.

Available in French:


International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics

Summary from the E-discussion on working with men to promote women in politics (March 16-31,2009).

Through this E-Discussion, iKNOW Politics invites participation from women and men who are leaders in local governments, civil society organizations, academics and practitioners working with women in communities and local governments to share their experiences on the questions below:

Enabling Participation: What are some of the laws, quota regulations, practices and initiatives that ensure women’s equal participation at local levels of government?

Strategies for constituency building and political success: What are some strategies used by women to build a base of support and to become known in their local communities?

Impact of women in local government: Does having more women in local governments lead to creating more gender sensitive programs and legislation and empowering other women in communities? What are some examples of women’s impact on local legislation, local government initiatives, and budgets?

Mayors: What strategies are there to ensure that more women are elected to mayoral positions (president of the local council)? What are strategies for female mayors to be effective leaders?


Llanos, B. and K. Sample.

30 years of democracy. Riding the wave? Women's political participation in Latin America. Stockholm: Int. Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.

The report examines the progress made in women's participation at all levels of public and party decision making, in the three decades since the start of the third wave of democratization in Latin America, drawing on data from 18 countries in the region.


Llanos, B. and K. Sample.

From words to action. Best practices for women's participation in Latin American political parties. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2008.

This manual provides political party members and leaders with the means to implement concrete strategies for achieving equality for women within party organizations and to access positions of power and representation. More than a year of research and field work in 18 Latin American countries is condensed in this publication, which describe 95 "good practices" implemented by party organizations. It also analyzes the progress and the challenges still facing women in politics, both in the region and in each of the countries studied. Also in Spanish:


Karam, Azza

Women in parliament. Beyond numbers. A revised edition. Stockholm: IDEA, 2005.

This updated edition provides a three-step approach to strengthening the role of women in parliament:

§  What are the obstacles women confront entering parliament - be they institutional, political, socio-economic or ideological?

§  How can these obstacles be overcome? Options such as reforming the electoral system and introducing special measures like quotas are presented.

§  What strategies can women parliamentarians implement to influence politics once they are elected to parliament, an institution which is traditionally male-dominated?

The revised edition includes case studies from Argentina, Burkina Faso, Ecuador, France, Indonesia, Rwanda, South Africa and Sweden, as well as regional overviews from the Arab World, Latin America and South Asia and a case study on the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Also available in French:

Also available in Spanish:


National Democratic Institute (NDI)

Assessing women’s political party programs. Best practices and recommendations 2008. Washington: NDI, 2008.

NDI embarked on this assessment in an effort to better understand effective approaches to women’s political party programs across a number of regions and to measure the impact of such programs. The assessment is designed to identify the specific elements and approaches which were most effective in encouraging women’s participation and leadership in political parties. Although drawn from NDI programs, the information gathered in this assessment is intended to be used by both individuals and organizations as a road map to help facilitate women’s political leadership worldwide.


National Democratic Institute (NDI)

Democracy and the challenge of change. National Democratic Institute, 2011.

This guide was created to be used by NDI staff and other practitioners to develop, implement, monitor and evaluate women’s political participation programs across a variety of technical areas. There are separate chapters on Citizen participation: Elections;  Political parties;  and Governance, which provide a rationale for focusing on increasing women’s participation in each technical area, as well as programmatic frameworks, examples of best practices and case studies, and strategies to be used throughout the lifecycle of a program or project. A checklist that covers some fundamental considerations regarding women’s political participation programs is also included here. This

checklist will assist practitioners in ensuring that programs advance women’s empowerment and promote gender equality.


United Nations - Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women (OSAGI)

An annotated bibliography of selected resources materials. Enhancing women’s participation in electoral processes in post-conflict countries. New York: OSAGI, 2004.

This annotated bibliography has been produced as a background document for the Expert Group Meeting on “Enhancing the role of women in electoral processes in post-conflict countries” organized by the United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women (OSAGI) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the Electoral Assistance Division of the Department of Political Affairs. It can also be used as a ready reference guide for field-based actors on current literature and guidance on how to ensure women’s full participation throughout all stages of the elections process – pre, during and post elections.





International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) / Stockholm University

Global database of quotas for women

As the debate about the use of quotas as a tool to increase the political participation of women gains momentum, International IDEA and Stockholm University are collaborating on a research project leading to the production of a comparative knowledge and resources on their implementation and impact.

The first step in the collection of global information on quotas is the development of this website database. This website provides information on the various types of quotas in existence today, detailing the percentages and targets in countries where they are applicable. This database is intended as a working research tool. That is, the database will continue to expand as more information becomes available and is verified.

Contains data by country and quota type, and sources and additional readings, arranged by country.


Ballington, Julie (ed.)

The Implementation of quotas: African experiences. Stockhom, International IDEA, 2004.

This report examines women’s political representation on the African continent, and shows how quotas have contributed to increasing women’s access to political power. Gender quotas are now increasingly viewed as an important policy measure for boosting women’s access to decision-making bodies throughout the world. Experience from Africa is very encouraging: over 20 countries on the continent either have legislated quotas or political parties that have adopted them voluntarily. This report illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts.

The report includes 17 regional and country case studies. The country case studies include Egypt, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda.


International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) / Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), Stockholm University

Atlas of electoral gender quotas. IDEA / IPU / Stockholm University, 2014.

Gender quotas are increasingly being used as a way to increase women’s political participation and representation. The Atlas of Electoral Gender Quotas is a unique collection of data on how such quotas are being used around the world. It presents trends and challenges on gender quotas as well as insights on the impact of gender quota regulations. Included are profiles on 85 countries and territories and the quota systems they use. The publication is based on country-specific information contained in the Global Database of Quotas for Women (, a joint initiative of International IDEA, IPU and Stockholm University.


Larserud, S.; Taphorn, R.

Designing for equality. Best-fit, medium-fit and non-favourable combinations of electoral systems and gender quotas. Stockholm : IDEA, 2007.

Today, the average proportion of women members of parliaments stands at a mere 17.2 per cent. Only 19 countries in the world have achieved the goal of 30+ per cent women’s representation in national legislatures, a goal which was adopted by the Beijing Process in 1995. There are two important variables that affect women’s political representation: the electoral system and the use of quotas for women. Combined in different ways, these variables have different results on women’s participation.

Designing for Equality provides an overview of how electoral systems function with different kinds of quotas for women. It assesses how women’s representation can be increased under different combinations of electoral systems and quotas. This publication aims to serve as a reference tool for all those who work to increase women’s representation in politics.



Training manuals


Afkhami, M. & A. Eisenberg

Leading to action. A political participation handbook for women. Women’s Learning Partnership (WLP), 2010.

Leading to Action is designed for use as a learning tool by those who are challenging themselves to play a more significant political role in their communities. Whether the goal is to be elected to office, support a campaign, encourage women to vote, or secure better legislation for the community, this handbook helps women hone their skills to take the next political step. Scenarios are based on criteria set by our partners and give real life examples of successes and challenges women face in the political sphere. The appendices include a glossary of terms, extra sessions, and relevant United Nations conventions that support women’s civil and political rights.


Australian Labor's International Projects Unit

Campaign school for women trainers' guide. Australian Labor's International Projects Unit, 2009.

The Trainer's Guide is based on the successful Cairn's Campaign School for Women run annually since 2007.

The Trainer's Guide includes:


Module 1: Campaigning for affirmative action for parliament

Module 2: Campaigning for gender equality in political parties

Module 3: Campaigning for political equality and government action

Module 4: Campaigning for elected office


Gender Links

Zimbabwe centres of excellence for gender mainstreaming in local government manual. Gender Links, 2010.

The local government gender action plan manual is a product of the Training of Trainer workshop that took place in Johannesburg in February 2009. This manual has been written for local authority councillors and staff at urban and district levels. It provides the source material for a three and a half day workshop that will result in gender action plans to be integrated into council plans and budgets as well as plans and to end gender based violence.

The manual is divided into ten modules. These are: SADC Protocol on gender and development; Key gender concepts; Gender and governance; Transformative leadership; Key gender planning concepts; Gender, the economy and budgeting; Developing a gender action plan with a flagship action for ending gender violence at the local level; Making IT and the media work for you; Media literacy for women leaders; Sixteen days of activism.


National Democratic Institute (NDI)

Candidate training manual for women. An NDI training guide for civil society organizations. Washington: NDI, 2005.

In an effort to support the political participation of women in Uganda, the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) will conduct a training program for women candidates through collaboration with women's civil society organizations.

The training materials are primarily aimed at trainers whose target audiences are women who intend to or are thinking about running for elected office from the local to the national level. The materials provide a framework for training and some critical background information. The materials are intended to help potential women candidates run a race that will help them win by providing information on how to run for office.


Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat

A Guide for campaigning for Pacific women. Suva: Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, 2008.

Throughout the Pacific, women are active and respected members of their communities. However, representation of women in Pacific parliaments and congresses is still very low. This booklet aims to help women who want to get involved in their own local, national and regional governance to get started to take on the challenge of elections. The start strategy has been developed as a quick reference point, to help women remember some of the key issues they will need to consider and key activities they need to undertake when running for elections. It is based on the experiences of Pacific women themselves who have stood for election, drawing on their successes and the lessons they learned along the way. 







Bell, Emma

National machineries for women in development. Experiences, lessons and strategies for institutionalising gender in development policy and planning. Brighton: BRIDGE, 2002 (Report 66).

What are national governments doing to promote the status of women? Governments have created women’s committees, divisions, and bureaux, but have these had any impact? This report reviews the experience of these so-called “national women’s machineries” (NWM), drawing on cases from developing countries. The mandates, status and effectiveness of NWMs have been constrained by lack of commitment and funding from governments. In order to be more effective, NWMs must restructure themselves so that women’s concerns are fully mainstreamed into the strategies and activities of both governments and NGOs.



Gender and Governance. Cutting Edge Pack. Brighton, Bridge, 2009  

Governance processes – with their emphasis on principles of accountability, transparency, responsiveness and inclusiveness – should be a means to social transformation. But despite this potential, they are failing to deliver on gender equality, and women are having to struggle to get their voices heard and needs met. This Cutting Edge Pack maps out persistent obstacles to gender equality in governance and offers possible ways forward - including promoting gender balance in positions of authority, making rights central to governance institutions and processes at all levels, and building political will for change.

The pack contains;

Overview Report. By Alyson Brody

Supporting Resources Collection. By Justina Demetriades

Gender and Development In Brief

         The pack also is available in Spanish, Portuguese and French.


Gonzalez, K. ; Sample, K.

One size does not fit all. Lessons learned from legislative gender commissions and caucuses. International IDEA / NDI, 2010.

This guide offers strategies to better obtain influence in parliaments that Latin American legislators can use to promote their gender equality agenda more effectively; ensure that gender is an element in the debate and agendas, and that it becomes an essential component of all legislation.


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)    

Equality in politics. A survey of women and men in parliaments. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2008.

This publication is the result of survey research conducted by the IPU between 2006 and 2008. It collates insights from both men and women parliamentarians into the factors that shape decision making. It provides concrete examples of how parliamentarians are working to attain gender equality in politics at the national level, and how parliaments can become more gender-sensitized. Survey respondents also identify several structural changes that could help to promote women’s access to and full participation in parliament.

Also available in French:

And Spanish:


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Gender sensitive parliaments. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2011.

This report follows up on a previous IPU publication, Equality in Politics: A Survey of Women and Men in Parliaments (2008). That Survey had found that women were overwhelmingly the main drivers of progress in gender equality in parliament, but that parliaments, as institutions, must also shoulder their share of the responsibility. This finding begs the questions: What are parliaments doing to foster gender equality? What policies inform gender equality efforts? Are the institutional structures of parliaments around the world mindful of both men and women? In short, are parliaments gender-sensitive?

The Report seeks to provide answers to these questions. Simply put, a gender-sensitive parliament is one that responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, operations, methods and work. This publication not only provides an important assessment of the gender sensitivity of the world's parliaments, but also identifies key steps parliaments can take to become gender-sensitive institutions that contribute to the achievement of gender equality.

         Also available in French:

         And Spanish:


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Plan of action for gender-sensitive parliaments. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2013.

This plan is a key policy document for the IPU and its member Parliaments. It was drawn up following extensive consultation with IPU Members.

A gender-sensitive parliament is one that responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, methods and work. The Plan of Action is designed to support parliaments’ efforts to become more gender-sensitive institutions and offers a wide range of strategies in seven action areas that can be implemented by all parliaments.

         Also available in French:

         And Spanish:


International Union of Local Authorities (IULA)

         Worldwide Declaration on Women in Local Government. Harare: IULA, 1998.

On 25 November 1998, in Harare, Zimbabwe, the IULA Worldwide Declaration on Women in Local Government was endorsed by the IULA World Executive Committee and launched at a special meeting attended by some 100 local government representatives from around the world and by the local press. With declarations about the local government as a service provider and enabler of sound living conditions, and as an employer in a strategic position to influence local society.

Also available in French and Spanish


Lakwo, Alfred

Making decentralization work for women in Uganda. Leiden: African Studies Centre, 2009.

The title of this book – Making Decentralization work for Women – presents two sides of the same coin. Foremost, it reveals that decentralization was not working for women and second, it indicates that decentralization can work for women. How the gendered decentralized governance can be engendered is the central argument presented in this book. The book explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability.


Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Meer, Shamim.

Creating voice and carving space.  Redefining governance from a gender perspective. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), 2004.

The book focuses on sixteen organisation's initiatives across eight countries in Africa and South Asia. The organisations shared a strategy to negotiate and bargain with the state for recognition, rights, and resources and more equitable sharing of power between women and men. They each investigated how women among marginalised groups could be enabled to stake their claim to participation in governance, and how to create accountability of governance institutions to poor women's interests and rights. The objectives of the programme were to explore what constitutes good governance and inclusive citizenship from a gender perspective and to identify strategies to promote gender equality in governance and enhance citizen participation.

Chapters are devoted to a variety of topics, including:

§  creating voice and carving space

§  women's political representation

§  increasing responsiveness and accountability of governance institutions

§  citizenship

Each chapter also includes a variety of case studies.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

Gender mainstreaming in local authorities. Best practices. UN-Habitat, 2008

The initiatives presented in this handbook are drawn from the best practices database of United Nations Human Settlements Programme as well as other databases and websites.

The best practices can be arranged into three main sections: (i) gender mainstreaming (ii) women’s empowerment (iii) women’s safety and security. Women’s empowerment encompasses a wide range

of related issues: poverty reduction, increasing women’s participation in decision making, enhancing women’s access to housing and security of tenure, better access to basic services, including, for example, child care facilities.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Huairou commission

Local to local dialogue. A grassroots women's perspective on good governance. UN-HABITAT, 2004.'s%20Perspective%20on%20Good%20Governance.pdf

The six case studies from Kenya, Russia, Argentina, Tanzania, Czech Republic and Uganda chronicle the experiences and efforts of grassroots women’s groups to identify priorities and negotiate with local authorities and in some cases other government authorities.



Training manuals


Mugisha, Maude

Gender and decentralisation. Promoting women's participation in local councils. Case Study: Lira District, Uganda. FAO.                 

A sensitisation programme aimed to create awareness at the community level  on the need to support and enable women to effectively utilise the opportunities to participate in local level decision-making processes. The programme provided opportunities for women and men to discuss and examine the issue of women in leadership positions. The document includes the training modules used during the Lira District Programme.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

Gender in local government. A sourcebook for trainers. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT, 2008

This Sourcebook aims at providing local governments with the tools to better understand the importance of gender in the decision-making process and to reach better solutions for the communities they serve. For this publication the following key issues of local governance have been selected:

participation in local government; land rights; urban planning; service provision; local government financing; violence against women; and local economic development.

Each of these issues is introduced by a brief gender analysis. Numerous case studies illustrate what local governments can do. Reflection questions and training exercises help trainers to develop successful training events.







A bibliography:



Gender and budgets. Cutting Edge Pack. Brighton, Bridge, 2003.  

This pack provides a concise & practical resource, which shows how budgets can be used as a tool to further gender equality.

The pack contains:

Overview report. By Helena Hofbauer.

Collection of supporting resources.By Hazel Reeves and Charlie Sever.

Gender and Development In Brief bulletin

         The pack also is available in Spanish  and French.      




And further:


Budlender, D., Elson, D., Hewitt, G. and Mukhopadhyay, T.

Gender budgets make cents. Understanding gender responsive budgets.

London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2002.

This publication aims to inspire government officials, policy-makers, donor agencies, and civil society groups to engage in gender-responsive budget initiatives by demonstrating both equity and efficiency gains.


Budlender, D.; Hewitt, G.

Engendering budgets. A practioner’s guide to understanding and implementing gender-responsive budgets. Commonwealth Secretariat, 2003.
This guide is intended to help practitioners design and implement gender-responsive budgets. The first part of the guide provides background information on gender-responsive budgets. Part two outlines how to implement a government budget, as well the budget process and potential entry points for beginning gender budget work. Part three addresses the practical issues involved in implementation, focusing on assessment and sustainability of initiatives. The final section of the guide looks at how the three-way categorisation developed in Australia and the five-step approach developed in South Africa are applied. It also provides information on necessary data, assessment of gender-responsiveness policies and how to determine budgetary outputs and outcomes.


Budlender, D.; Hewitt, G.

Gender budgets make more cents. Country studies and good practice.

London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2002.

This volume of case studies gives practitioners' accounts of the challenges and opportunities of gender budget work across Africa, Latin America, East and South-east Asia, Europe and the Pacific.


Budlender, D.; Reyes, C.; Melesse, M.

Gender-Responsive Budgeting through the CBMS Lens. Implementing the Community-Based Monitoring System in a way that facilitates gender-responsive budgeting. Community Agency for Social Enquiry (Cape Town) / Angelo King Institute for Economic & Business Studies (Manila) / International Development Research Centre (Ottawa), 2005.

The following paper suggests how the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS), developed and implemented in 14 countries over the last ten years with financial support from the Canadian International Development Research Centre (IDRC), can be used to facilitate gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) at the local level.  In particular, it looks at how CBMS can be used to support local-level GRB (LLGRB) initiatives of civil society and local government.


Elson, D.

Budgeting for women's rights. Monitoring government budgets for compliance with CEDAW. UNIFEM, 2006.

This publication makes a significant contribution to the advocacy work on the transparency of budgets. It provides arguments for increasing the accountability of government budgets to women's rights.

The report compiles experiences of gender-responsive budget initiatives that analysed budgets to assess how they contribute to bridging gender gaps and achieving women's rights in the areas of education, health, employment, protection against violence, land and property rights, and social protection, among others. It explains how to identify gender inequalities in budget processes, budget expenditure and revenue raising policies, and how to address such inequalities. Citing examples from the work of gender-responsive budget initiatives, the report shows progress made in this regard in several countries.


Elson, D.

Budgeting for women’s rights, monitoring government budgets for compliance with CEDAW. A summary guide for policy makers, gender equality and human rights advocates, UNIFEM 2008.

This booklet based on Diane Elson’s publication “Budgeting for women’s rights: monitoring Government Budgets for compliance with CEDAW’ is an advocacy tool for key stakeholders in the area of government budgets and women’s human rights, including policy and lawmakers at the country level, and gender and human rights advocates.

The publication is available in English, French and Spanish.


Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU).

Parliament, the budget and gender. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2004.

This handbook, jointly produced with the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank Institute and the United Nations Fund for Women, was inspired by a series of regional and national seminars on Parliament and the Budgetary Process, Including from a Gender Perspective. Intended as a reference tool, this handbook sets out practical examples of parliament's active engagement in the budgetary process. It seeks to advance parliament's own institutional capacity to make a positive impact on the budget, and to equip parliament, its members and parliamentary staff with the necessary tools to examine the budget from a gender perspective. The Handbook will also serve as a follow-up guide for participants of past and future seminars on the role of parliaments in the budgetary process.



Training manuals


Action for Development (ACFODE)

Gender Budget training manual. ACFODE, 2005.'S_GENDER_BUDGET_TRAINING_MANUAL.doc

This training manual has been developed, to guide trainers who are involved in building capacities of policy makers and other stakeholders at district and subcounty levels in gender budgeting. The overall objective is to ensure that plans and budgets address the needs of disadvantaged groups especially the women. Gender budget training seeks to enhance awareness of the decision-makers and other stakeholders to the importance of integrating gender in plans and budgets. This is achieved by imparting skills and techniques of gender budgeting so that they can oversee the integration of gender concerns during the formulation of national and district budgets, as well as the implementation of gender sensitive budgets.


Schneider, Katrina.

GTZ manual for training on gender responsive budgeting. GTZ, 2004.

This Manual is designed for professional gender trainers who are familiar with training methods and gender concepts. It is based on an advanced training course for trainers organized by GTZ’s Gender Advisory Project from 26 July to 7 August 2004 in Nairobi.


United nations Population Fund (UNFPA) / United nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

Gender responsive budgeting in practice. A training manual. UNFPA / UNIFEM, 2006.

The training manual on gender responsive budgeting (GRB) is intended to build the capacity of UNFPA and UNIFEM staff in applying gender budget analysis tools in their programming around gender equality and women’s rights, it will also assist them in supporting gender budget initiatives wherever they exist. The manual specifically seeks to build understanding of GRB as a tool for promoting gender equity, accountability to women’s rights as well as efficiency and transparency in budget policies and processes. It is anticipated that this manual will develop skills required to effectively engage in mainstreaming gender in planning and budgeting processes at country level.

The manual draws on the rich experience and lessons learnt from UNIFEM’s programming on gender budgeting in more than thirty countries since early 2000. It further encapsulates the understanding that gender responsive budgeting is an essential element in any serious political commitment towards gender equality and lays out approaches to align budgets with requirements for the achievement of women’s rights.








Citizenship. Cutting Edge Pack. Brighton: Bridge, 2003.

How are citizenship rights and responsibilities being extended and transformed by struggles for gender equality? How can women and others marginalised by gender participate in and influence the decisions that affect their lives? This pack is a concise, practical resource for policy-makers, practitioners and activists. It demonstrates how gendered understandings of citizenship rights can help development actors promote the participation of all women and men in shaping their societies and communities.

The pack is made up of:

Overview Report . By Shamim Meer with Charlie Sever.

Supporting Resources Collection. By Charlie Sever.

Gender and Development In Brief bulletin.

The pack also is available in Spanish and French..


Mukhopadhyay, M and N. Singh.

Gender justice, citizenship, and development. IDRC, 2007.

Although there have been notable gains for women globally in the last few decades, gender inequality and gender-based inequities continue to impinge upon girls’ and women’s ability to realize their rights and their full potential as citizens and equal partners in decision-making and development. In fact, for every right that has been established, there are millions of women who do not enjoy it.

In this book, studies from Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are prefaced by an introductory chapter that links current thinking on gender justice to debates on citizenship, entitlements, and law and development. A concluding chapter situates the discussion of gender justice, citizenship, and entitlements in current development debates on poverty alleviation and social exclusion. The book brings together multidisciplinary perspectives from leading feminist scholars of sociology, political science and legal studies, among others, and in doing so, provides new insights for both advocacy and research.


United Nations - Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)

Women, nationality and citizenship. New York: UNDAW, 2003

This report outlines provisions in international instruments and human rights treaties which address discriminatory nationality laws and provides examples of where such instruments have been used. In many states, a wife's nationality is dependent on that of her husband, which can leave women vulnerable in cross-national marriages. Women can also be vulnerable in cases where they retain their own nationality and move to another country, rendering them unable to access citizen rights in the new environment. Women are often not allowed to pass nationality on to their children which has significant implications for custody and security of children. Recommendations focus on how actions at the international and national levels can work with international instruments and amend national laws. They also include gender training for the judiciary and immigration officers and removing the barriers to dual nationality. Recommendations for NGOs include initiating test-cases, disseminating national and international case law and the production of 'shadow' reports to the Committee that oversees the enforcement of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

Also available in French:

and Spanish:










Council of Europe – gender equality

This site has been set up to provide information on all the Council of Europe's activities in the field of equality between women and men at intergovernmental level. Since 1979, the Organisation has been promoting European co-operation to achieve real equality between the sexes. It possesses a wealth of information on subjects such as violence against women, trafficking in human beings, gender mainstreaming, positive action, balanced participation in decision-making, national machinery for equality, men and gender equality. The site explains what kind of work is carried out and gives direct access to a number of publications and studies.



International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)

         Women in parliament: beyond numbers.

International IDEA is committed to ensuring that gender equality is integrated in democracy building. As a cross cutting dimension of democracy, gender is addressed through two complementary and critical approaches; gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment. Through the global programme on Democracy and Gender as well as regional programme  initiatives (in Nepal, Bolivia and Sudan etc.) we support knowledge transfer and capacity building on gender equality and women’s empowerment  in electoral processes, political parties, constitution building processes, state of democracy assessments and democracy and development processes.

Global database of quotas for women

International IDEA promotes the participation and representation of women in politics. The institute provides comparative information on how to advance gender and democracy issues. A series of regional reports on gender quotas have been produced, featuring experiences from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. A regional report on the Arab World is currently under preparation. Furthermore, in a joint project with Stockholm University, IDEA has set up a database on the use of gender quotas providing information on 97 countries. The database sorts information by country, quota type and by ranking of the percentage of elected women in national parliaments. A new feature of the database is information about the enforcement of quota laws ("rank-order rule"), as well as links to those political parties that are applying quotas on a voluntary basis. 



The International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics

The International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics) is an online workspace designed to serve the needs of elected officials, candidates, political party leaders and members, researchers, students and other practitioners interested in advancing women in politics. It is a joint project of the UNDP, UNIFEM, the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA).

Created with the goal of increasing the effectiveness  and participation of women through the innovative use of technology,  iKNOW-Politics includes an online library that provides access to  academic papers, case studies, training materials, data and statistics,  editorials and newspaper articles and government documents on the issue of women and political process; a discussion board that enables users to exchange information and participate in discussions; and a space where best practices on topics ranging from campaign techniques to political parties to post-conflict and transitional participation can be shared. 

In order to provide the highest possible level of accessibility and ensure wide-scale use, the content and resources on the iKNOW Politics Web site are available in Arabic, English, French and Spanish.



Royal Tropical Institute

Gender, Citizenship and Governance (GCG)

GCG is a database (library) that is ongoing with new content added regularly, with at present more than 500 resources as well as many news items & events. A new search engine makes it possible to search all resources, including news and events in several ways ((free) keywords; year; etc.). It also offers e-mail alerts, RSS feeds, and can be followed on Twitter and Facebook.

What the portal offers is a searchable digital library of:

-         E-publications

-         Websites (including wiki's, blogs)

-         E-newsletters

-         E-discussion (lists & forums)

-         Bibliographic databases

-         Directories of organizations and projects

-         Audiovisual resources



Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Democracy through partnership between men and women in politics.

Site with a lot of information about women in politics, especially in national parliaments. It contains historical facts, statistics (world en regional averages and comparative data by country about women in parliament and government), debating subjects, studies and surveys, the follow-up to the Beijing conference, instruments of international law, useful links, and the work of IPU. Online their Plan of Action

On-line a bibliographic database women in politics with abstracts and many keywords.

Likewise the website contains an online a database with the detailed results of parliamentary elections.

The database contains the world and regional averages of women representation in parliament (both houses), and women representation in national parliaments (both houses) indicating the number of seats and averages.

         Also accessible in French



National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI)

Gender, women and democracy

The NDI is a non profit organisation working to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide. The site gives an overview of their program activities concerning women’s participation. With country highlights, publications and resources.




UN-WOMEN / Commonwealth / International Development Research Centre

Gender responsive budget initiative

The Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives is a collaborative effort between the United Nations Women, The Commonwealth Secretariat and Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), to support government and civil society in analysing national and/or local budgets from a gender perspective and applying this analysis to the formulation of gender responsive budgets.

The Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives website features resources on gender budgets. The online library contains country cases, documents and references, training manuals and tools and presentations and proceedings. The site highlights workshops and events that will be taking place on the topic of gender budgeting.

Also on the site: newsletters issued periodically to encourage knowledge sharing between Gender Budget Initiatives around the world. It share news on progress made in incorporating a gender perspective into budgeting, and inform practitioners of new resources and publications on GRB.