GENDER TOOLS

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

I        On the project level

1.       Gender mainstreaming in general

2.       Gender analysis

3.       Gender planning

4.       Gender monitoring and evaluation

II       On the organisational level

5.       Gender approaches

6.       Gender assessments

7.       Gender training

8.       Gender budgeting

 

9.       Gender checklists

 

Annex A: sex-disaggregated data

 

 

 

 

 

This overview is a selection of existing gender tools. Some of the most recent as well as more ‘classic’ tools are included.

 

In order to obtain a successful process of gender mainstreaming, the use of tools only is not sufficient, some preconditions need to be fulfilled. The most important are: sufficient technical capacity, a gender friendly organisational culture, accountability and political will. 

 

 

I want to thank Gudule Boland, Ireen Dubel, Jeannette Kloosterman, Roel Snelder and Tessa Roorda for their contributions.

 

 

Annette Evertzen

GADE

www.gade-gender.nl

December 2009

Update February 2018.

 


I      ON THE PROJECT LEVEL

 

 

 

1.    Gender mainstreaming in general

 

 

What can you find here?

This section provides a general overview of tools for mainstreaming gender into the project cycle.

The tools show key questions and points for identification, planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation of projects.

When to use it?

The tools cover different steps of the project cycle. Some tools also include information about organisational change.

 

 

Derbyshire, Helen

Gender manual. A practical guide for development policy makers and practitioners. London: Department for International Development (DFID), 2008.

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dfid.gov.uk/Documents/publications/dfid-gender-manual-2008.pdf

 

This manual is divided into three main sections.

Section 1: Background ideas and concepts.

Section 2: Mainstreaming gender in the policy / programme cycle.

Section 3: Tools and guidelines on the processes of gender mainstreaming. This section gives information about statistics and analysis; voice and accountability; policy action and resources; and, organisational and individual change.


 

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

Project cycle management. Technical guide. Rome: FAO, 2001.

www.fao.org/sd/seaga/downloads/EN/projecten.pdf

 

This guide gives an overview from project cycle to evaluation, and contains several practical case studies.


 

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations                           

Intermediate-level handbook. Rome: FAO, 2001.

http://www.fao.org/sd/seaga/downloads/En/Intermediateen.pdf

 

The purpose of the Intermediate Handbook is to support participatory development for those who play an intermediary role between government policy makers, and individuals and households at the community level.

The tools in this handbook are designed to build capacity to:

        include socio-economic and gender considerations in planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation in intermediaries,

        promote internal participatory processes within intermediaries, including within organisational processes, and

        build more participatory methods for working with development partners and stakeholder groups.


 

Global Finland

Training package for the promotion of gender equality in NGO development cooperation.

Global Finland , 2004.

http://global.finland.fi/gender/ngo/english/

 

This training package provides NGOs engaged in development cooperation with basic information about gender perspective and practical advice on how gender equality can be promoted through NGO projects. With the help of concepts, examples and exercises dealing with gender equality and project cooperation, NGOs are offered basic training that will improve the abilities of their own projects to reduce gender inequalities. The reduction of inequalities through projects also improves the quality and impact of development cooperation.


 

SDC - Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Gender Tool Kit - instruments for gender mainstreaming. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is experiential learning. SDC.

https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/themen/gender/224801-equidad-genero-en-practica_EN.pdf

 

This website contains text and tools (key questions) with regard to definitions; strategies; gender analysis; analytical framework; gender in household and community analysis; gender in country, policy and sector analysis; gender in country programmes; gender in programmes and projects; gender in project cycle management and logical frameworks; gender and monitoring; gender and evaluation, etc.


 

UNDP - United Nations Development Programme  

Gender mainstreaming in practice. A handbook. UNDP RBEC, 2007.

http://www1.uneca.org/Portals/ngm/Documents/Gender%20Mainstreaming/Gender_Mainstreaming_in_PracticeRBC.pdf

 

This handbook starts with ten steps to integrating gender into the policy-making process, followed by a guide to gender analysis.

The following part - the Gender Briefs - is  designed to highlight the main issues and links between gender and a specific policy area: poverty; labour; macroeconomics and trade; private sector development; education; health; energy and environment; governance and participation; human rights and justice; science, research and information and communication technologies; crisis prevention and recovery; HIV and Aids.

Each sub-issue discussed in the Gender Briefs is divided into sections that provide different types of information. The sections are as follows: What is the Issue? What is the goal? Why bother? Possible interventions and entry points; Measuring progress; References.


 

 

 

2     GENDER ANALYSIS

 

 

What can you find here?

This chapter contains frameworks to analyse gender roles and relations with respect to the target group. The Harvard framework is a real ‘classic’ and many frameworks thereafter are adaptations, extensions and improvements of this framework.

A gender analysis at project level gives insight in how tasks and responsibilities are divided between household members: who does what and when is it done? It gives information on the ways in which women’s access to and control over resources such as land, income, inheritance and political influence is less than men’s. In some tools a simple context analysis has been included.

The tool provides project staff with information about gender roles and power relations and the possible impact of project interventions on the gender relations. It helps to design just those interventions where most impact can be expected

If the tools are mixed with a participatory process, it can be an important step to create more gender awareness amongst the participants.

When to use it?

A gender analysis should be done before the start of a project. The analysis can be repeated later on to capture change.

 

 

 

General toolkits

 

Aguilar, L.; Briceño-Ilsie, G.; Valenciano, I.                                                       

Seek... and ye shall find. Participatory appraisals with a gender equity perspective. San José: Costa Rica: World Conservation Union, Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress, 2000. (Toward Equity  Series, module 2).

http://generoyambiente.com/arcangel2/documentos/419.pdf

 

This guide contains: principal approaches in participatory appraisals; theoretical foundations of the appraisal process; steps or stages; and, work tools.

The techniques and tools include: ice breakers and energizers; techniques for understanding the general situation of a community; techniques for identifying the perceptions and assessments of women and men (socialisation); techniques for identifying division of labour; techniques for analysing access, use and control of benefits and resources; techniques for prioritising community problems; and, conventional techniques for information gathering.  


 

March, C.; Smyth, I.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

A guide to gender analysis frameworks. London: Oxfam, 1999.

http://wafira.org/onewebmedia/Guide%20to%20Gender%20Analysis%20Frameworks.pdf

 

This book contains step-by-step instructions for using different gender-analysis frameworks. Each framework is accompanied by a commentary that looks at the advantages as well as the potential pitfalls and offers ideas for further reading. The frameworks are also placed within the wider context of gender and development work and a definition of key concepts is provided.


 

UNDP - United Nations Development Programme / Gender and Development Programme  

Gender analysis. UNDP Learning and Information Pack - Gender Mainstreaming. New York: UNDP. 2001.

http://www.gdrc.org/gender/mainstreaming/2-GenderAnalysis.doc

 

The Information Pack of UNDP contains a copious and interactive document with regard to gender analysis.  The Information pack comprises three sections: 

Section 1 consists of four sets of slides with a brief commentary on each. The slides set out key points for the reader: what is gender analysis, how can gender analysis and policy be linked, what are the key concepts and tools in social and gender analysis, men and masculinity in gender analysis.

Section 2 includes resources such as reading materials, handouts and worksheets to amplify the issues raised in the slides.  All the well-known frameworks are described and discussed. To link gender analysis with policy and programmes some other tools are included: Decision-making, SWOT Analysis, and Force Field Analysis

Section 3 includes references to internet and other resources on related issues.

Full size slides, which can be used for presentations, are in the back of the manual.  


 

Agriculture and subsectors

 

 

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations                           

Socioeconomic and gender analysis (SEAGA). A toolbox. Field handbook. Rome: FAO, 2001.  

http://www.fao.org/sd/seaga/index_en.htm

 

The purpose of this Handbook is to support participatory development planning at community level,  to:

        Identify key development patterns,

        Understand the livelihood strategies of different people, and

        Build consensus about development priorities and action plans.

The toolkits consist of a number of rapid rural and participatory rural appraisal tools, and include also a series of SEAGA questions to facilitate and deepen analysis.


 

Gender in value chain analysis

 

Gender in Value Chains. Agri-ProFocus Learning Group

https://agriprofocus.com/gender-in-value-chains

 

This website contains a lot of information about gender in value chain analysis, including:

·        A toolkit: https://agriprofocus.com/upload/ToolkitENGender_in_Value_ChainsJan2014compressed1415203230.pdf

·        Online training Gender in agriculture

·        Factsheet gender in value chains

·       Resources

·

 

 

 

3     GENDER PLANNING

 

 

What can you find here?

This chapter gives tools for gender sensitive planning. It shows how to organise participative planning that takes into account men and women’s specific wishes, needs and interests. Some tools are specifically meant to integrate gender issues in the logical framework.

When to use it?

In planning processes at the local level, with the participation of the target group.

 

 

Aguilar, L.                                                                                                      

A good start makes a better ending. Writing proposals with a gender perspective. San José: Costa Rica: World Conservation Union, Arias Fundation for Peace and Human Progress, 1999. (Toward Equity  Series, module 1).

http://generoyambiente.com/arcangel2/documentos/418.pdf

 

This manual contains: why projects need to have a gender equity perspective; basic considerations for mainstreaming a gender equity perspective in the project proposal; and, recommendations for incorporating a gender equity perspective during project preparation.  


 

Alfaro Quesada, C.                                                                                          

If we organize it, we can do it. Project planning with a gender perspective. San José: Costa Rica: World Conservation Union, Arias Fundation for Peace and Human Progress, 2000. (Toward Equity  Series, module 3).

http://generoyambiente.com/arcangel2/documentos/420.pdf

 

Seven steps for project identification and formulation are dealt with in this guide: understanding planning; definition of the primary purpose; identification of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOTS); identification of priority problem(s);

expectations to accomplish; identification of possible solutions; preparation of a tentative plan


 

Engendered logframes

 

FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation / ISNAR - International Service for National Agricultural Research

Training manual on gender analysis for monitoring and evaluation. The ‘Engendered Logframe’ approach. FAO / ISNAR, 2001.

http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/dim_pe1/pe1_040702_en.htm

 

This training manual to integrate gender issues in the logical framework includes learning objectives for each day’s activities; descriptions of the training approach, methods, and techniques; master copies of handouts, worksheets, overhead transparencies, and additional reading materials that can easily be copied and distributed to others who might be interested. There are also evaluation sheets and a recommended bibliography for use by the trainers. Material has been gathered from many sources; these are acknowledged wherever possible.

 


 

IPSI

Gender Mainstreaming in Project Cycle Management (based on EC guidelines). IPSI, 2017.

http://www.ispionline.it/sites/default/files/vanosch_5._ppt_gender_in_ppcm__indicators.pdf

 


 

SDC - Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Gender Tool Kit - instruments for gender mainstreaming.

https://www.eda.admin.ch/deza/en/home/themes-sdc/gender-equality/instruments-gender-mainstreaming/gender-tool-kit.html

gender in PCM and logical frameworks.

 

This website contains text and tools with respect to gender in project cycle management and logical frameworks.


 

 

 

4     Gender monitoring and evaluation

 

 

What can you find here?

Tools to integrate a gender approach into existing monitoring and evaluation mechanisms of projects, can be find in this chapter.

The main issues are the use of sex-disaggregated data, the use of gender indicators, and methods to involve men and women of the target group in the monitoring and evaluation of their projects. The tools learn to distinguish between sex-disaggregated statistics, which gives the straightforward numbers of males and females in a given population, and gender data, which can reveal the relationships between women and men that underlie the numbers. Gender-sensitive indicators provide evidence of (changes in) the situation and position of women, relative to the status of men.

When to use it?

To monitor and evaluate projects at the local level, some tools include evaluations at the institutional and government level.

 

 

Gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation

 

Brambila, Paola.

Gender and monitoring. A review of practical experiences. Paper prepared for the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC). Brighton: BRIDGE, 2001.

http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/re63.pdf

 

This report aims to provide a practical tool that can be used to integrate a gender approach into existing monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. This paper first defines M&E, goes on to look at how indicators can be made gender-sensitive, who should be involved in this process, and at which point in the project cycle. Case studies follow the implementation of such approaches at field level (projects and programmes), institutional and government level. The paper concludes with some recommendations and suggestions.


 

Rodríguez, G.

Taking the pulse of gender. Gender sensitive systems for monitoring and evaluation. San José: Costa Rica: World Conservation Union, Arias Fundation for Peace and Human Progress, 2000. (Toward Equity  Series, module 4).

http://generoyambiente.com/arcangel2/documentos/421.pdf

 

The  module  contains  theoretical  elements  on  the subject  as  well  as  contributions  to  implement  gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation systems. The steps  to  be  followed towards system implementation include tools with regard to: decision making;  participants’ selection; variables and indicators; scales of performance; data collection tools; data processing and report preparation.


 

United Nations Development  Program (UNDP) / United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

A user’s guide to measuring gender-sensitive basic service delivery. UNDP / UNIFEM, 2009.

http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/a-users-guide-to-measuring-gender-sensitive-basic-service-delivery-.html

 

This guide is intended to contribute to the development and more effective use of gender-sensitive indicators so that services are delivered more efficiently and effectively to women. It should be seen as a generic and basic tool to map and anlyse governance of basic service delivery from a gender perspective. It includes indicators and measurement tools developed by multilateral and bilateral agencies as well as by national counterparts. The guide also presents examples of newly developed and innovative measurement initiatives in women's access to public services.


 

World Bank

Toolkit. Integrating a gender dimension into monitoring & evaluation of rural development projects. World Bank, 2005

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/RuralM_EToolkit2005.pdf

 

This toolkit from the World bank contains two parts:

Part I: General guidelines for integrating gender in M&E.

Part II: Thematic briefs on rural sub-sectors, containing result frameworks and checklists of gender-related issues and activities during the project cycle.


 

Gender-sensitive indicators

 

Beck, Tony.

Using gender-sensitive indicators. A reference manual for governments

and other stakeholders. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat, 1999.

http://www.thecommonwealth.org/shared_asp_files/uploadedfiles/%7BD30AA2D0-B43E-405A-B2F0-BD270BCEFBA3%7D_ugsi_ref.pdf

 

Contains: Developing a national-level database of gender-sensitive indicators; gathering and using gender-sensitive indicators; the state of the art; good practice case studies in the development of gender-sensitive indicators.


 

Moser, A.

Gender and indicators. Overview report. Brighton: BRIDGE, 2007.

http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/IndicatorsORfinal.pdf

 

What does a world without gender inequality look like? Realising this vision requires inspiring and mobilising social change. But what would indicate we are on the right track - and how will we know when we get there? Gender-sensitive indicators and other measurements of change are critical - for building the case for taking gender (in)equality seriously, for enabling better planning and actions, and for holding institutions accountable for their commitments on gender.


 

Escalante, Ana Cecilia; Rocío Peinador, María del.

Eyes that see…hearts that feel. Gender indicators. San José: Costa Rica: World Conservation Union, Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress, 1999. (Toward Equity  Series, module 6).

http://generoyambiente.com/arcangel2/documentos/423.pdf

 

The book describes the process followed to construct gender equity indicators and defines important concepts. "Key situations" or "triggers" are transformed  into  suggestions and actions that rural development initiatives can incorporate in their activities to promote gender equity. A set of gender indicators is given according to the following dimensions: work, resources, education/training, health, social relations, personal growth and quality of life, and organisation/ project. The last chapter contains methodology and steps for applying this proposal  and  the  construction of a definitive  system of gender equity indicators for rural development initiatives.  


 

Oxfam GB

Quick guide to gender-sensitive indicators. Oxfam, 2014.

https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/quick-guide-to-gender-sensitive-indicators-312420

 

A gender-sensitive indicator is simply an indicator that measures gender-related changes in society over time. By identifying the changes in the status and roles of women and men that we want to achieve and knowing how we will measure them, we can analyse our programme outcomes to see whether we are contributing to gender equality. Using gender-sensitive indicators can also help us to understand how changes in gender relations happen, which enables more effective planning and delivery of future work.


 

 

 


II    ON THE ORGANISATIONAL LEVEL

 

 

 

5     GENDER APPROACHES

 

 

What can you find here?

Five women in development (WID) approaches can be identified - welfare, equity, anti-poverty, efficiency and empowerment. The first four were influenced by dominant development paradigms, mainly espoused by donors such as the World Bank and USAID, whereas the last, empowerment, arose from women in the developing world. The most recent approach is the gender mainstreaming approach. This approach emerged from criticisms of WID approaches (women’s status did not improve and gendered power relations were not addressed) and the adoption of gender and development.

When to use it?

The analysis of approaches can be used to analyse the vision of an organisation with respect to gender and development. It also shows if visions and projects / programmes  are consistent.

 

 

Royal Tropical Institute

Facilitators guide for gender training. KIT / Kǿnsnet, 2009

https://www.atria.nl/epublications/2009/Facilitators%20guide%20for%20gender%20training/Facilitators_guide_for_gender_training/Default.aspx-ID=18333.htm

 

Contains a tool and a presentation with respect to the different approaches which are part of a gender training.


 

Williams, S.; Seed, J.; Mwau, A.

The Oxfam gender training manual. Oxford: Oxfam, 1994.

https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/the-oxfam-gender-training-manual-141359

 

This gender training manual contains on p. 219 a tool to understand different approaches with respect to gender and development. Especially the overview on p. 226 is useful to learn more about the history and goals of the different approaches.


 

 

 

6     GENDER ASSESSMENTS

 

 

What can you find here?

Gender assessments are meant to analyse strong and weak point of organisations with respect to gender mainstreaming.

Especially two methods are in use in the Netherlands: a method developed by the Gender & Development Training Center for SNV, and later adapted for HIVOS and the ILO. And the Nine-box tool, used by NOVIB and KIT.

The tool analyses different aspect of organisations to reveal strong and weak points with respect to gender mainstreaming and prioritising actions to improve. Part of the analysis are: vision and mission; activities; structures and processes; capacity and capacity; decision making; organisational culture; accountability; HRM, etc. 

When to use it?

It can be used by organisation to assess the state of art and develop a strategy for further actions to undertake in order to improve what they are doing.

 

 

Gender & Development Training Center; adapted by A. Evertzen

Gender Self-Assessment tool. The Hague: SNV, 2001.

CD-Rom For information: aevertzen@xs4all.nl

 

The Gender Self-Assessment (GSA) methodology is a comprehensive tool, consisting of a set of methods to be used in workshop sessions with groups of participants, preferably teams that work together. After introducing the assessment and an explanation about the organisation of an assessment, the following issues are dealt with: the policy, strategy and assignments concerning mainstreaming for gender equity and women's empowerment; gender capacity, competence and capacity building; knowledge/ information management; systems and instruments (analysis, planning monitoring/ reporting, evaluation, quality control, personnel management, financial management, etc); partner organisations and client appreciation; organisational culture; perceptions of achievement. The CD-Rom also contains adaptations of the assessment that are used in different countries, and a tool (by E. van den Berg) especially for partner organisations.


 

ILO - International Labour Office

A manual for gender audit facilitators. The ILO participative gender audit mehodology. Geneva : ILO, 2007.

http://www.ilo.org/gender/Informationresources/Publications/WCMS_113746/lang--en/index.htm

 

The Manual is a step-by-step guide to the participatory gender audit process.

Part One gives an overview of the four pillars on which the participatory methodology is based. It outlines 12 key focus areas for collecting the information that will be needed throughout the audit and for guiding the formulation of the recommendations.

Part Two provides all the practical information (what, how, when and with whom) related to the audit process.

Part Three comprises a set of participatory workshop exercises with detailed instructions on the objectives, the materials needed and the outcome expected. It also includes suggestions on how to adapt the exercises according to the needs and structure of the audited unit.

Part Four covers the last two segments in the audit process: “At the end of the audit” and “After the audit” and describes what needs to be addressed, including report writing.


 

InterAction

The Gender audit handbook. A tool for organizational self-assessment and transformation. InterAction, Revised 2010.

https://www.interaction.org/sites/default/files/Gender%20Audit%20Handbook%202010%20Copy.pdf

 

Step 1 – Preparing for the Gender Audit Step 2 – Staff Survey  Step 3 – Focus Group Conversations Step 4 – Gender Action Planning.


 

Mukhopadhyay, M. , Steehouwer, G. , Wong, F.

Politics of the Possible. Gender mainstreaming and organisational change. Experiences from the field. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers.

https://www.kit.nl/gender/wp-content/uploads/publications/916_POP.pdf

 

The nine-box tool can be find in the annex, on page 132-138.


 

SDC - Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

Gender Tool Kit - instruments for gender mainstreaming.

https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/themen/gender/224801-equidad-genero-en-practica_EN.pdf

gender in organisations

 

This website contains a checklist with respect to gender in organisations.


 

 

 

7     GENDER TRAINING

 

 

What can you find here?

Capacity building for staff of development organisations. The training is meant to raise awareness of the why and how of gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment; participants also learn how to use tools.

When to use it?

For people without gender knowledge. Follow-ups for people with gender knowledge to deepen their understanding and to keep gender on the agenda.

 

 

Mukhopadhyay, M.; Wong, F.

Gender training. The making and remaking of gender knowledge. A global sourcebook. Royal Tropical Institute, Oxfam GB, 2007.

http://213ou636sh0ptphd141fqei1.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/gender/wp-content/uploads/publications/1031_Gender-revisiting-web2.pdf

 

This book explores the explicit and, more often, implicit assumptions in gender training about the nature of knowledge, imparting knowledge and knowing. Individual chapters focus on case studies from India, the Machreq / Maghreb region, Uganda and the Francophone world.

The book also includes an annotated bibliography of almost 150 resources on gender training (with author, organisation and geographical indexes) and a list of web resources.


 

Wikigender

Gendertraining

https://www.wikigender.org/wiki/gender-training/

 


 

Williams, S.; Seed, J.;  Mwau, A.

The Oxfam gender training manual. Oxford: Oxfam, 1994.

https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/the-oxfam-gender-training-manual-141359

 

This extensive manual was one of the first gender training manuals and is still in use. It includes brief explanations of key concepts, tools for gender analysis, analytical frameworks and directions on how to set up a gender training workshop. 

The manual contents: key concepts; facilitators' guidelines; training techniques; sharing work experience; consensus on development; gender awareness and self-awareness; building gender awareness; self-awareness for men and women; gender roles and needs; women in the world; gender and development; gender-sensitive appraisal and planning; analytical frameworks; case studies. It also contains tools with respect to specific themes: gender and global issues; gender and conflict; gender and environment; gender and economic crisis; gender and culture; working with women and men.


 

 

 

8     GENDER BUDGETING 

 

 

What can you find here?

Gender budgeting provides in a gender analysis of budgets. The tool can increase the transparency of budgets, it can make visible what resources and services are allocated to what projects, and who (women or men) benefits. It is meant for governments, but can – if adapted - also be used by NGO’s.

How to use it?

To analyse the budget and to monitor performance delivery.

 

 

Bridge

Gender and budgets

http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/bridge-publications/cutting-edge-packs/gender-and-budgets

Overview report, supportin resources collection and in brief. In English, French and Spanish.


 

Tools and resources for budgeting can be found at:

https://www.internationalbudget.org/ibp_publication_categories/gender-budgets/


 

 


9     GENDER CHECKLISTS

 

 

 

What can you find here?

These checklist with respect to specific sectors give a quick insight in the most important gender issues with respect to the sector.

How to use it?

Questions can be used for example to execute a gender analysis or a gender impact assessment.

 

 

Different sectors

 

Asian Development Bank

Gender checklists and toolkits in sector work

https://www.adb.org/themes/gender/checklists-toolkits

 

 

 

Agriculture and subsectors:

 

World Bank

Gender in agriculture. A World Bank learning module.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTGENDER/0,,contentMDK:20192985~menuPK:489246~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336868,00.html

 

This module has particular reference to the agriculture sector. It offers an overview of the issue of gender in development work, particularly agriculture; the approaches; the tools for implementing gender education and analysis across a variety of sectors and geographic regions including slide presentations, exercises for both trainers and audiences, sample terms of reference for contractors, and instruments to aid with gender analysis; case studies; and references

 

 

 

 


 

 

Annex A: sex-disaggregated data

 

 

When conducting a gender analysis, by monitoring and evaluation or by reporting it is important to distinguish between sex-disaggregated statistics or data (the straightforward numbers of males and females in a given population), and gender statistics or data (the underlying relationships between women and men).  

A table to illustrate the distinction between sex-disaggregated statistics and gender data 

 

School with Total Enrolment of 100 Children

Girls

Boys

Implications …

Statistics disaggregated by sex

 

40

60

There are more boys than girls in the school

Gender Data

 

10 of 40 are from poor households (25 %)

35 of 60 are from poor households (55%)

Poor households make more effort to educate their sons.

Of the ten girls from  poor households, 1 girl is from a Muslim family                             

Of the 35 boys from poor households, 22  are from Muslim families

Must be correlated with proportion of  Muslim families in the population at large.  Indicates that Muslim families place additional importance on boys’ rather than girls’ education.  Special measures may need to be taken to educate parents about the value of girls’ education and support girls’ access to school.

Girls are absent from school when babies are born         

Boys are absent from school in the dry season,  to dig ditches

 

The dry season happens at the same time every year.  Teachers can therefore plan the curriculum around those absences.  Pregnancies and births are random, so girls are at a disadvantage, even if the total days absent are equivalent.

30% are malnourished

 

20% are malnourished

This tells us how girls are treated at home relative to boys.  Nutritional level affect learning and retention.  Boys and girls may both be able to attend school, but they cannot access the opportunity equally if girls are malnourished relative to boys.

Domestic work 4 hrs before and after school, including water, firewood, cooking, cleaning, sibling child care, selected agricultural tasks

Domestic work 30 minutes after school, cattle

 

This has implications for homework.  It has implications for discussion of entitlements, in relation to leisure time as a resource.  Men’s privilege is often embedded in their position, invisible to the men who experience it.  Making this privilege visible is a characteristic outcome of gender specific data and its use in development decision-making.

Parents not supportive of progress of girls on to high school  (e.g. 38% of girl students’ parents interviewed responded positively)

Parents are determined sons will go to high school (e.g. 77% of boy students’ parents  interviewed responded positively)

Without family support, social policy interventions or development project-specific inputs may not be long-term or yield lasting change.  Work with parents is a possibility; so it work with village/community leaders.  Multiple strategies are usually needed to make the necessary structural changes – building on the concept of social relations, the network of community relationships.

 

Source: UNDP. Developed by Trish Keays and Sarah Murison at a workshop on Gender Mainstreaming in Tokyo Japan. November 2000.